Preface: The Value of Diversity: Spectrum of Tissue, Training, and Individuals in Hand Surgery xiii
Michael G. Galvez and Kevin C. Chung
Diverse Leadership in Hand Surgery: Foundation on the Shoulder of Giants 1
Tiam M. Saffari, Maria T. Huayllani, and Amy M. Moore
Surgical leaders exhibit unique characteristics that allow them to impact and innovate their respective fields. In Hand Surgery, we recognize areas of leadership success, including leadership of position, leadership of innovation, and academic leadership. This article aims to define the term “success” and provide examples of how a diverse climate can lead to leadership success by highlighting a few stories of diverse giants in the field of Hand Surgery.
The Value of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Race and Ethnicity Affecting Patients 9
Christopher O. Bayne
Patient race and ethnicity are important factors in health-care inequity, including care for the patient with hand and upper extremity pathologic condition. Physician diversity has been shown to promote better access, improve health-care quality, and improve satisfaction for underserved populations. Concordance, most often defined as a similarity or shared identity between physician and patient, has been shown to have a positive influence on health-care disparities. Although diversity among Hand surgeons is increasing, it is not matching the diversity of the population as a whole. It is imperative that we work to increase and maintain diversity in order to provide the best care for our patients.
Role of Health Equity Research and Policy for Diverse Populations Requiring Hand Surgery Care 17
Paige L. Myers and Kevin C. Chung
Health equity requires allocation of resources to eliminate the systematic disparities in health, imposed on marginalized groups, which adversely impact outcomes. A socioecological approach is implemented to elucidate the role of health equity research and policy for underrepresented minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Through investigation of the individual, community, institution, and public policy, we investigate problems and propose solutions to ensure fair and just treatment of all patients requiring hand surgery.
Advocacy for Diversity in Hand Surgery 25
Angelo R. Dacus, Brittany Behar, and Kia Washington
Diversity in the Hand Surgery workforce improves the quality of care delivered, advances a wider variety of innovation within the field and leads to higher patient satisfaction, greater access to care and patient adherence to advice. An understanding of the data makes a compelling argument for change. Advocacy is necessary to stop the “leaky pipeline” of the loss of diversity in more senior and leadership roles. Hand surgeons who are both women and from underrepresented minority groups are especially vulnerable to bias from the health-care system, with focused support and mentoring required throughout their training and career.
Recruiting, Supporting and Retaining Diversity in Hand Surgery 33
Micah K. Sinclair and A. Bobby Chhabra
All surgical fields that lead to a career in Hand Surgery have a stark lack of diversity of sex/gender and race, at every level of the workforce, from trainees to practicing physicians. Despite consistent statistics in publications on lack of diversity in surgical fields, a guide to effective recruitment and retention is lacking. Although we recognize that a strategy cannot be applied in all practices, this article provides actionable items to consider in the commitment and work toward a more just and equitable practice of Hand Surgery.
Inclusive Mentorship and Sponsorship 43
Kamali Thompson and Erica Taylor
Mentorship and sponsorship are part of academia because they are vital for professional and personal development. Inclusive mentorship is defined as mentoring across differences. It highlights the need of all mentors to be well-versed culturally and to recognize and circumvent bias and microaggressions. Inclusive mentorship can also elevate underrepresented populations in medicine and create intercultural relationships that also benefit the relationships we have with our diversifying patient populations. There are still several barriers prohibiting inclusive mentorship from being widely understood and employed. This article discusses the importance of and techniques for improving inclusive mentorship.
Women in Hand Surgery: Leadership and Legacy 53
Wendy Chen and Allyne Topaz
Although women have existed in medicine and surgery for thousands of years, challenges continue to persist to date. Despite being discouraged and excluded from training, sponsorship, and opportunities, throughout the history of Hand Surgery, female surgeons have found ways to contribute significantly to science, our organizations, each other, changing the culture, and engaging the next generation of female trainees. This article integrates historical facts with oral history about Hand Surgery training, national societies, interest groups, achievements, and lived experiences to tell the history and legacy of women in Hand Surgery.
Women in Hand Surgery: Considerations and Support 65
Cathleen Cahill and Megan Conti Mica
Hand surgeons and trainees face many challenges in pursuit of their professional and familial goals. The culture of the training programs must change to aknowledge and address the needs of women as they naviagate career and their childbearing years. Challenges to maternity and family planning dissuade and perhaps prohibit female trainees from choosing surgical specialties and of those who do, from reaching their full professional potential. In the following chapter we will review current data on infertility, obstetrical complications, breastfeeding, maternity leave, career advancement and childcare in an effort to increase support for female trainees and practicing female hand surgeons.
The Underrepresented Minority in Hand Surgery: Challenges and Strategy for Success 73
Marvin Dingle and Michael G. Galvez
Hand surgery is a subspecialty that requires additional fellowship training after a primary residency; a long and competitive journey to achieve success. An underrepresented in medicine (UIM) student’s journey to becoming a hand surgeon in the United States adds another level of challenge given several defined obstacles. Despite the lack of representation, the chances of becoming a hand surgeon are difficult but not impossible. A comprehensive strategy for an UIM student to become a hand surgeon is outlined in detail.
LGBTQ+ Perspective in Hand Surgery: Surgeon and Patient 79
Joseph Paul Letzelter and Julie Balch Samora
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) individuals and patients face high levels of discrimination both in the workplace and in the clinic setting, with more than 25% of LGBTQ+ people experiencing discrimination in the workplace due to their sexual orientation. Hand Surgery stands to continue to advance by encouraging the brightest students into the field no matter their background. LGBTQ+ patients also have specific needs within the field of Hand Surgery, where we are uniquely positioned to treat them or guide them by being well versed in the needs of the community.
The International Medical Graduate Perspective in Hand Surgery: Legacy and Future Challenges 87
Uzair Qazi and Laxminarayan Bhandari
International medical graduates (IMGs) have made significant contributions in the field of hand surgery in terms of bringing in skill, innovation, research, and leadership and have gone onto mentor the next generations of hand surgeons. In this article, we have highlights some such contributions. We also highlight various pathways that IMGs take to establish their practice in the United States and the various challenges and hurdles they face.
Microaggressions and Implicit Bias in Hand Surgery 95
Kashyap Komarraju Tadisina and Kelly Bettina Currie
Implicit bias and microaggressions are well-known phenomenon and have recently been acknowledged as contributing to health care disparities. Within Hand Surgery, implicit bias and microaggressions occur in patient-surgeon, surgeon-peer, surgeon-staff, and training environment interactions. Although racial and gender biases are well studied, biases can also be based on age, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and/or hierarchal rank. Academia has well-documented evidence of implicit bias and microaggressions, contributing to current disparate demographics of trainees, physicians, and leaders within Hand Surgery. Awareness is fundamental to combating bias and microaggressions; however, actions must be taken to minimize negative effects and change culture.
Allyship for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Hand Surgery 103
Shea Ray, Jennifer D’Auria, Hannah Lee, and Mark Baratz
This article endeavors to be a resource to those individuals interested in becoming an ally or educating potential allies in the field of Hand Surgery. The definitions of allyship, its history, and its expected benefits are considered. The qualities of a good ally are enumerated, and approaches to becoming a better ally are described. The authors provide personal experience with impactful allies and describe strategies and resources on a local and national level. The authors conclude with “Bigger Questions”: those issues that seem essential to have allyship succeed in expanding diversity, equity, and inclusion in the specialty.
Recruitment of the Next Generation of Diverse Hand Surgeons 111
Claire A. Donnelley, Andrea Halim, and Lisa L. Lattanza
Hand surgery encompasses a diaspora of pathology and patients, but the surgeons treating this population are not commensurately diverse. A physician population that reflects the population it treats consistently leads to improved patient outcomes. Despite increasing diversity amongst surgeons entering into pipeline specialties such as General Surgery, Plastic Surgery, and Orthopaedic Surgery, the overall makeup of practicing hand surgeons remains largely homogenous. This article outlines organizations, such as the Perry Initiative, which have increased recruitment of women and underrepresented minorities into pipeline programs. Techniques of minimizing bias and increasing opportunities for underrepresented groups are also discussed.
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